Materi Tenses: Present Perfect Tense

Materi Tenses: Present Perfect Tense  – Present perfect tense digunakan untuk mengekspresikan aksi yang sudah dimulai pada masa lampau dan berhenti di masa sekarang serta memiliki pengarh pada masa sekarang. Present perfect tense menekankan pada hasil dari peristiwa yang terjadi. Pada umumnya present perfect tense juga digunakan untuk membicarakan pengalaman.

Pola dan contoh kalimat verbal dalam present perfect tense:

No. Jenis kalimat Pola Contoh Kalimat
1. Affirmative Subject + have/has +verb 3 (past participle) + Object. I/You/They/We have gone abroad.

She/he/it has gone abroad.

2. Negative Subject + have/has + not + verb 3 (past participle) + Object. I/You/They/We have not gone abroad yet.

She/he/it has not gone abroad yet.

3. Interogative Have/has+ Subject+ verb 3 (past participle) + Object+ ? Have I/you/they/we gone abroad?

Has she/he/it gone abroad?

Pola dan contoh kalimat nominal dalam present perfect tense:

No. Jenis kalimat Pola Contoh Kalimat
1. Affirmative Subject + have/has + been+ complement. I/You/They/We have been a doctor since a year ago.

She/he/it has been a doctor since a year ago.

2. Negative Subject + have/has + not + been+ complement. I/You/They/We have not been a doctor yet.

She/he/it has not been a doctor yet.

3. Interogative Have/has+ Subject+ been + complement + ? Have I/you/they/we been a doctor since a year ago?

Has she/he/it been a doctor since a year ago?

Ekspresi waktu dalam present perfect tense:

• For
• Since
• Already
• Lately
• Yet
• Just
• Ever
• Never
• Recently

Berikut ini adalah contoh kalimat present perfect tense berdasarkan fungsi/kegunaanya:

1. Pengalaman

Kita bisa mendeskripsikan pengalamna kita dengan menggunakan present perfect tense. Contohnya seperti menceritakan hal apa yang pernah dialami dan belum pernah dialami.

Contoh:
• They have got training from the government lately.
• I have never travelled abroad.
• I have ever seen a strange plane in the sky.
• Kenzy has learned English for a year in Australia.

2. Perubahan

Kita menggunakan present perfect tense untuk mendeskripsikan perubahan yang terjadi pada sesuatu dalam kurun waktu tertentu.

Contoh:
• My daughter has already grown into a lovely girl.
• My mother has become more curious about my result of study than before.
• They have been popular among politicians since they joined the party.
• Perry has already been aware of her health.

3. Pencapaian/Penyelesaian pekerjaan

Kita juga sering menggunakan present perfect tense untuk menuliskan apa saja yang telah kita capai atau pekerjaan apa saja yang telah kita selesaikan.

Contoh:
• Burjo has started business in culinary since 1998.
• I have finished writing 10 essays in a week.
• They have practiced traditional dance for two hours.

4. Akumulasi kejadian/pekerjaan

Kita bisa menggunakan present perfect tense untuk membicarakan akumulasi dari pekerjaan atau peristiwa yang terjadi dalam kurun waktu tertentu. Dengan present perfect tense, ini mengindikasikan bahwa process nya bisa jadi belum selesai dan akan ada aksi lainnya lagi.

Contoh:
• My father has called me three times.
• We have had four research projects in this semester.
• Wiwin has talked to her mother for several times about her willingness to study about but her mother has not given any response yet.

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